The word Quantum means the smallest quantity of physical properties that a system can have. What is Quantum Computing? And it’s relevance to learning and education. Before learning about Quantum computing itself, let us understand what a Quantum Computer means.
What is a Quantum Computer?
Quantum mechanical which is a branch of quantum physics that accounts for matter at the atomic level; an extension of statistical mechanics on quantum theory.
Furthermore, At small scales, physical matter exhibits properties of both particles and waves. Quantum computing leverages this behavior, specifically quantum superposition and entanglement. It uses hardware that supports the preparation and manipulation of quantum states.
Moving on, what is classical physics?
Classical physics refers to physical ideas that actually predate newer, more comprehensive, or much more broadly applicable theories
Classical physics cannot explain the operation of these quantum devices, and a scalable quantum computer could perform some calculations exponentially faster (with respect to input size scaling)than any modern “classical” computer. In particular, a large-scale quantum computer could break widely used encryption schemes and aid physicists in performing physical simulations.
However, the current state of the art is largely experimental and impractical, with several obstacles to useful applications. Moreover, scalable quantum computers do not hold promise for many practical tasks, and for many important tasks quantum speedups are impossible.
The basic unit of information in quantum computing is the qubit, similar to the bit in traditional digital electronics. Unlike a classical bit, a qubit can exist in a superposition of its two “basis” states, which loosely means that it is in both states simultaneously.
Physically engineering high-quality qubits are quite challenging. If a physical qubit is not sufficiently isolated from its environment, it suffers from Quantum Decoherence introducing noise into calculations. Paradoxically, perfectly isolating qubits is also undesirable because quantum computations typically need to initialize qubits, to perform qubit interactions. Each of those operations introduces errors and suffers from noise, and such inaccuracies accumulate.
National governments have heavily worked on experimental research that aims to develop scalable qubits with longer coherence times and lower error rates. Two of the most promising technologies are superconductors (which isolate an electrical current by eliminating electrical resistance) and ion traps(which confine a single ion using electromagnetic fields).
In principle, a non-quantum (classical) computer can solve the same computational problems as a quantum computer, given enough time. Quantum advantage comes in the form of time complexity rather than computability, and quantum complexity theory shows that some quantum algorithms for carefully selected tasks require exponentially fewer computational steps than the best known non-quantum algorithms.
Such tasks can in theory be on a large-scale quantum computer whereas classical computers would not finish computations in any reasonable amount of time. However, quantum speedup is not universal or even typical across computational tasks, since basic tasks such as sorting are proven to not allow any asymptotic quantum speedup. Claims of quantum supremacyhave drawn significant attention to the discipline.
What is Quantum Computing? Now let’s look at its relevance to learning;
01. Time and Speed:
Quantum computing’s helps to solve complex and difficult problems in less time with greater speed. This is especially different from the classical one that makes it a promising technology for specific applications. However, it’s essential to note that quantum computing is always very effective and works with an incredibly fast speed.
It is true that sometimes qubits can get entangled, the state of one qubit becomes linked with the state of another. Quantum computing efficiently makes this possible regardless of the physical distance between them. This interconnectedness enables quantum computers to share and process information more efficiently, contributing to faster computations and maintenance.
03. Problem solving:
Quantum computers can perform calculations on all possible combinations of input states simultaneously. Classical computers would need to explore each combination sequentially, while a quantum computer can explore multiple solutions in parallel. This parallelism is particularly advantageous for certain algorithms, such as those used in search or optimization problems.Quantum computers helps in solving specific problems like factoring large numbers, optimizing complex systems, and simulating quantum physics.
Quantum computing benefits users with its remarkable processing power. The ability of qubits to exist in multiple states simultaneously. All thanks to superposition, which enables quantum computers to explore and process vast amounts of information concurrently. This signifies a quantum leap beyond classical computing, offering the potential to solve complex problems that were previously insurmountable within reasonable comprehension.
Furthermore, quantum computing exhibits a very efficient capability known as entanglement, where qubits become interconnected and the state of one instantly influences the state of another, regardless of the physical distance between them.
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